One of the most important components of aquariums is plants, and in terms of them, Java Moss can not be ignored.
Researching for plants to add to your tank is just as important as researching for the fish, shrimps, crabs or any other pet you want to keep in the tank in the first place.
When aiming at fashioning a nicely aquascaped tank, you have to evaluate all the elements that need to come together to produce the desired result.
Much like fish, you to need to know the plant most important desirable features such as;
- Ability to survive varying water parameters
- Ability to thrive under varying lighting conditions
- Ease of propagation and maintenance
You need to be aware whether the plant also has major undesirable features such as;
- Inability to survive under varying water and lighting conditions
- High care demand
Luckily Java Moss has almost all you can wish for in an aquarium plant such as Hardiness, ability to be used in varying number of ways, ability to survive varying water conditions and so on.
However, it’s still highly beneficial if you understand all its requirements, common challenges and how you can maximize its potential for the sake of what you keep in the aquarium.
Java Moss Care Snippet
- Care Level: Easy
- Growth Speed: Medium
- Size: Up to 4 inches high and up to 4 inches’ wide
- Tank Placement: Foreground, Midground
- Aquarist Experience Level: Beginner to Expert
- Lighting Requirement: Thrives in low to bright light
- Ideal Temperature: 70-86°F (21-30°C)
- PH: 5-8
- Hardness: 6-20 dGH
Java Moss originated from the tropics of Southeast Asia and its found mostly in the moist tropical climate.
In its environment, it normally grows on tree trunks, forest floors and along river banks.
Currently, it has been reclassified as Taxiphyllum barbieri as opposed to what it was originally called- Vesicularia dubyana.
Be aware that you can find its old name still being used at different aquariums shops and many references are still using the original classification.
Failing to use the new classification among people aware of the change is majorly due to doubt in accuracy.
A lot have argued that Vesicularia dubyana is a separate species commonly known as the Singapore moss while others believe that the two mosses are in fact the same.
Java moss is undoubtfully one of the most preferred aquarium plants among fish keepers. That is mostly because many fish species and critters such as shrimps do well in its presence – more on that later.
It also makes aquariums more pleasing to the eye and helps the color of many fish species stand out even more.
To prove my point, take a look at this list of the most appealing types of tetras and imagine looking at any of them in a tank without any vegetation.
How would they look?
I bet some will look so unattractive that you start to wonder why am I even keeping these fish in the first place.
In terms of what makes the aquarium greenery- Java most is among the finest choice. That’s why its so important in the aquarium community.
Java moss is characterized by small scattered branched stems containing lots of tiny oval-shaped leaves overlapping each other. There is usually a difference in leaves appearance between when it grows on land and when it grows underwater.
You will notice that whenever Java moss grows underwater, it develops bright green leaves that are way smaller than the leaves of that which grows on land.
A very interesting feature of this plant is its absence of roots. it has what is called rhizoids which it uses them to attach itself to different elements in the tank such as driftwood, rocks, gravel and sand base.
It sucks the nutrients it needs through mostly leaves and then stems. It’s also interesting to know that Java moss can serve as a free-floating plant and can do well just like plant such as Hornwort.
Java moss grows to a size of about 4 inches tall and about 4 inches wide which is probably why it is rugged and able to withstand so many disturbances.
Java Moss Care Requirements
Java Moss is an incredibly hardy plant that can survive different water conditions. That said, it would still require you to provide the basic care level which can only be exercised with the right data.
Giving it proper care is so important seeing as it can determine the well being of what we keep in the tank or even their existence. Case in point, it provides shelter for fry thereby protecting them from getting eaten by the parents who typically consume their fry such as the Chili Rasbora
Java Moss does best if kept in water temperature that ranges between 70 and 75°F. The nice thing is that it can still do well in any temperature that fall within the ranges of 59 to 86°F.
It generally requires soft acidic water with a pH range of 5 to 8. As for the water hardness level, it should be within the range of 6-20dGH
With the above wide parameter ranges, you will have no disappointing challenge that can hinder you from rising and maintaining a healthy lush of Java moss.
Make sure you check the water condition every day with a qualitative test kits which wouldn’t be an added work since you do that for the fish or the critters you keep in the tank anyway.
Java moss does well in varying lighting level. To be specific, it becomes densely parked with lighter leaves coloration in a tank with medium to a high amount of light. When in tanks with low lighting level, it tends to become scantier and darker in color.
As a rule, you shouldn’t expose them to too much light. Otherwise algae will start to overrun the tank.
You can increase the speed of your java moss growth by increasing the level of light but do it cautiously (this cannot be overemphasized because once high amount algae consume the plant it’s incredibly difficult to get rid of).
Once it’s set it up in your tank, you can make use of different aquarium lighting solutions that are on the market.
To avoid any mistake, conduct proper analysis on the lighting level your tank requires based on the size, shape, plants and pets it contains.
As a guide keep your aquarium light for a period of 8 to 10 hours a day to snuff out intense algal growth.
Keeping the lighting level in check also help make sure that Java moss doesn’t overrun the tank in no time thereby increasing the trimming need.
Be aware that using a high level of lighting is not the only way to speed up Java moss growth, fertilizers can facilitate that too.
Since it does not have roots its best to use liquid additives that can dissolve in the water properly.
Java Moss Benefits and Uses
Keeping java moss in your tank will provide a wide range of benefits to other lives in the tank, directly or indirectly. We discuss some of those benefits below.
Java moss can be used for the sole purpose of aquarium aquascaping. To explain- aquascaping is basically the equivalence of gardening on land.
It can also be used to cover a tanks floor, wall or be allowed to just float which add aesthetic appeal to the tank together with other elements such as pieces of rock, driftwoods and so on.
When I mentioned it can benefit other lives in the tank indirectly I was referring to a scenario whereby it helps add aesthetic appeal to most fish and shrimps we keep in tanks.
I mean, have you seen how fascination a school of Neon Tetras or group of cherry shrimp look in a heavily planted tank?
What a nice scene to behold!
To benefit the other life in the tank
Java moss can help other life in the tank in various number of ways but the most prominent ones are 2 which include; Serving as a natural spawning mop and Helping in raising a fry.
Serving as a spawning mop: Eggs scatters such as Tetras, Rasboras, Danios and Barbs tend to eat their egg when exposed. Fortunately, when the eggs are laid they sink and stick to plants like Java moss. Most of the time when the plants are abundant they successfully conceal them from the parents and other hungry fish.
Help in raising fry: Just like it helps egg from getting eaten it also help after the eggs are hatched. Java moss provides shelter and security for fry and at the same time provide them food. A microorganism called Infusoria which is a major food source for fry, grow well on Java moss.
Other benefits that java moss provide include;
- Increasing oxygen level and removing the carbon dioxide
- It helps in providing some level of filtration of toxic chemicals in the water
- Overall, it helps in mimicking the natural ecosystems of most fish species
Methods of Planting and Propagating Java Moss
Java Moss is a very flexible plant that can grow on virtually any kind of surface in the aquarium. However, the easiest way to propagate it is by leaving it as a floating plant.
In that case, all you need to do is take a chunk of it from an already matured one, dip it in your tank, and leave it. Popular ways of using Java moss include; Using Java moss for walls, carpeting with Java moss and creating trees with Java moss
Using Java moss for walls:
A common way of aquascaping with Java Moss is by creating a vertical floor on the aquarium walls.
This is created by using two pieces of mesh and some fishing line. If that’s not available you can use a thread.
Place your first piece of mesh and gently cover it with the moss. Once its stable place the second piece of mesh on top and use the thread or the fishing line to stabilize the two pieces together.
The joined moss can then be placed on the aquarium wall in grids with the help of suction cups which will help it stay fixed until it propagates.
Carpeting with Java moss:
This is essentially the same as above except the Java moss will be placed on the aquarium floor instead of on the wall. The joined moss is also arranged in grids to cover the whole floor area depending on the tank size.
The stem grows through the spaces and eventually the whole spaces will get covered by the moss.
Creating trees with Java moss
This is another cool way of using Java moss in an aquarium and is quite easy to achieve. All you have to do is get a piece of driftwood with some branches that will look like a tree when covered with the moss.
Use some glue (a glue that applies to aquarium use obviously) and attach the chunk of moss in reasonable amounts until you cover the driftwood to the extent that you want.
Trim it to give the appearance of the tree you want.
Java moss does not require a lot of maintenance, it needs just cleaning and trimming to make it continuously looking fresh.
Cleaning: Over time, animal waste from fish and uneaten food chunk build up in the moss especially if planted at the tank base.
It’s very important to get rid of this nasty accumulate from time to time as it can result in nitrates formation which will mess up the water quality.
When attached to driftwood or a piece of rock you can easily perform the cleaning by completely removing the plant from the tank and rinsing it in a running water. Don’t worry about the thought of damaging it because it can withstand way more disturbances than that.
Another way to clean it is by siphoning the built-up detritus with a properly sized tubing.
Trimming: How often and how you trim your java moss will depend on how you want its appearance. Some experienced aquarist trims theirs into any shape they can imagine, with practice anyone can do that too.
Others trim just to make sure it does not overwhelm their tank.
Depending on your tank situation develop a schedule of trimming to make sure its growth is maintained to the required level.
Without any input, you can bet it will cover every corner of your tank. Plus, Java moss older growths tend to die off when left without management.
It can easily get trimmed using a pair of scissors but know its fine if you happen to be slow the first time you start. This could happen especially if you have no experience in trimming plants.
Obviously, when you trim any plant you have to deal with the mess that follows. After cutting off the moss, the pieces sink to the bottom of the tank and if not thoroughly cleaned can get scattered throughout the tank when the filter starts.
That can create a problem by slowing the filtration process in the tank which could be detrimental to both the plants and other lives in the tank. Worst-case scenario, they can damage the filters altogether.
To properly carry out the cleaning, siphon out the pieces as they get cut by using at least a 3/8 inch tubing for proper suction.
Common Java Moss Issues
Despite being extremely easy to care for, there is one major problem you might experience when keeping Java moss it in your tank.
That is specifically algal growth which happens when the lighting level is the tank is high, like I mentioned before.
High phosphate and nitrates level in the tank also propagate the algal growth.
This can be prevented by keeping the lighting level from medium to low. Plus regular water quality test using a qualitative test kit to make sure the nitrates and phosphates levels are within safe zones.
Make sure you start doing this as soon as you introduce the plant in your tank. This is essential because treating it after it has become severe is quiet challenging as in some cases, it would have to be replaced completely.
If the algal growth isn’t too severe you can clean off the Moss as we discussed earlier.
It’s not hard to see why java moss is one of the most beloved plants in the aquarium space. Certainly one of the major reasons is its incredibly low level of care requirement.
It does not require special lighting condition, does not require any fertilizer and can survive under varying water conditions. It is also incredibly sturdy and most importantly, it’s compatible with lots of aquarium species.
Java moss is so good that it can sometimes survive without any level of care. With this, I had to say keeping it is about as easy as it gets with aquarium planting. I didn’t need to say it but I have- Java moss is a plant that is perfect for beginners.
If you have any question, reach out. We will be more than happy if you do.
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